LUBRICANTS GLOSSARY

A

AAMA: (American Automobile Manufacturers Association)
ACEA: (Association of European Automotive Manufacturers)
ACS: (American Chemical Society)
ADHESION: The force of attraction applied by one substance to another
ADR: (European Treaty for Transportation of Hazardous Products on Highways). It is a Directive providing transportation of hazardous substances safely, environment friendly and orderly on the  public highway.
AFNOR: (The Association of French Standards)
AGMA: (American Gear Manufacturers’ Association)
POUR POINT: The test determining the lowest temperature at which oils can flow. This is a significant test particularly for stocking and ambient temperature.
POUR POINT REDUCING ADDITIVES: Such additives reduce the pour point in oils by preventing wax crystallization.
ALCALINITY: The capacity of chemicals to neutralize acids. Alkalis in the mineral oil are basic substances which neutralize acids and prevent acidic and corrosive wear.
ANILINE POINT: This is the lowest temperature where equal volume of aniline and base oil or fuel could form a full mixture. Aniline point test is important since it finds out the temperature at which oils form a transparent mixture with aniline and determines their paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic structures.
ANTIOXIDANE ADDITIVES: -They retard aging in oils- (They delay aging in lubricants)
API: (American Petroleum Institute). One of the most prominent organizations which determine engine oil performance levels in the world.
ASTM: (American Society for Testing and Materials) American Organization for Standards, publishes globally accepted standard test methods.
ABRASION PREVENTING ADDITIVES: Such additives form a lubricant film layer between two metal surfaces pressurizing each other.
EXCESSIVE PRESSURE (EP) ADDITIVES: Added to lubricants to prevent metal to metal contact on the surfaces pressurizing each other, these additives react with the metal surface to increase film strength and load bearing capacity of  lubricants.

B
BSI: British Standards Institution
BASE OIL: These are carbon derivatives produced in refineries by refining petrol, used in mineral based and semi-synthetic oils, with a load bearing function.
BACTERICIDE: This additive mixes with water and prevents bacteria formation, reproduction or growth in the oils forming emulsion.
COPPER CORROSION TEST: This test method determines corrosion caused by the lubricant on copper by checking the color change on the copper plate.

C
CEC: (Coordinating European Council)
CMA: (Chemical Manufacturers Association)
CLP: (EU Regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures). English Acronym for EU Regulation No. EC/1272/2008 on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures.

Ç
MULTI-VISCOSITY OILS: These are engine oils that can be used both in the summer and winter, containing viscosity index improving additives. 

D
DIN: Deutsche Industrie Norm (German Test Standards Organization), publishes and updates German test methods.
DROP POINT: This is the temperature at which grease is transformed from semi-solid state to liquid state under test conditions and is one of the most significant indicators showing(providing) grease’s heat resistance.
FREEZE POINT REDUCER: High molecule weight methacrylate polymers obtained by combining chlorinated wax and phenols so that mineral oil would not lose its viscosity because of low temperature.
DETERGENT ADDITIVES: These are basic salts which reduce or prevent accumulations(deposits) forming in the machines at high temperatures.
DISPERSING ADDITIVES: Ashless and metalless additives which prevent or retard(delay) formation of residues within the mineral oil(lubricants) they are added.
DYNAMIC VISCOSITY: Resistance of a fluid against deformation under surface tension. It could also be defined as the internal resistance of the fluid against flowing.
FOUR BALL TEST: Findings of this test method are abrasion diameter (and therefore oil’s abrasion preventative character) forming on two metal surfaces pressurizing each other (standard balls) as well as the boiling load between the balls under increasing load.
DEMULSIBILITY:  Oil’s water repellent nature and its being easily separated from water which can be found using a standard test method.


E
EOLCS: (Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System)
EMA: (Engine Manufacturers Association)
EMULSION: Heterogeneous systems where two non-mixing phases (water and oil) mixes by means of other chemicals (emulgators).

F
FUNGICIDE: General denomination for chemicals used for killing(exterminating) or controlling fungi or fungal spores.

G
GREASE: A substance formed by mixing of a fluid lubricant and thickener, with a consistency from solid to semi-fluid. 

H
HDDEO: (Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oil)
AIR RELEASE TEST: The test determining the tendency of oils to release the air within their body.
HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION: In case thickness of the mineral oil film between metal components is higher than 6000 Angstroms, such lubrication is called as hydrodynamic (thick film) lubrication.
HYDROSTATIC LUBRICATION: If thickness of the mineral oil is less than 6000 Angstroms, this is called as hydrostatic (thin film) lubrication

I
ILSAC: (International Lubricant Standardization & Approval Committee)
ISO: (International Organization for Standardization)
IVF QUENCHOTEST EQUIPMENT: Metal hardening test equipment employed in Cooling Speed value determination of the Thermal Process Oils.

İ
PROCESSED PENETRATION: Greases are processed during consistency measurements. Because of this, consistency i.e. penetration values are measured after they are hammered on a grease processor (60 beats). Such measured value is called as Processed Penetration Value.

J
JAMA: (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association)
JASO: (Japan Automobile Standards Organization)
JIS: (Japanese Industrial Standards)
JSAE: (Japan Society of Automotive Engineers)

K
THICKENERS: They convert oils into grease and control many significant performance characteristics of grease.
BLEEDING: Separation of the grease from its oil content in the process of storage.
ADDITIVES: Additives are substances which do not exist in mineral oils or exist in certain quantities, added to the oils for the purposes of providing them with required features, improving their current qualities, minimizing or eliminating unwanted characteristics.
STABILITY OF ADDITIVES: The capacity of the additives to preserve their performance in the process of usage and storage.
CAVITATION: The abrasion caused by temporary failure of the oil to cover the surface it should have covered.
REFRACTIVE INDEX: Refractive index of a substance is a coefficient showing how slow a light or other electromagnetic waves proceed in in comparison to light traveling in space.
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY: The test where resistance of oils against flowing, i.e. their fluidity is determined. It is measured at 40°C for industrial applications or at 100°C for automotive applications, its unit is mm²/sec or cSt.
COHESION: The force holding particles forming a substance together. In other words, it is the attraction force between the same type of molecules.
ANTIFOAMS: These additives are used for easily separation of oil from air and preventing its foaming.
ANTICORROSIVES: They form a film layer on metal surfaces cutting the contact between metal surface and oxygen thereby preventing oxidizing (corrosion) of the surface and provide a temporary protection.
ASH: Iron oxides which form on iron or steel surfaces in contact with water, air or oxygen.

M
MINERAL OIL: Lubricants which are used to keep two solid objects apart from each other and minimize friction between them so that they move easily.
METAL PASSIVATORS: The additives added to mineral oil so that metal does not enter into a chemical reaction with air, oil or other substances.
MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet. The document containing safety, environment, health or similar information required while using products.
ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY: Resistance of a fluid against flowing. Division of the shear stress by shear rate yields in absolute viscosity, expressed by the unit poise.
MVMA: (Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association)

N
NAS: "National Aerospace Standard", is the test method which determines the micron level particulate distribution in oils.
NLGI: (National Lubricating Grease Institute), classifies greases with regard to their processed penetration values.
NMMA: (National Marine Manufacturers Association)
NVMA: (National Vehicle Manufacturers Association)

O
OEM: (Original Equipment Manufacturers)
OXIDATION STRENGTH: Destroying of oil’s structure by the oxygen in the air with the help of such adverse factors as high temperature or pollution. Oil’s viscosity increases, its color gets darker, acidic residues form. Oil is provided with a long service life thanks to high quality base oils and antioxidant additives.
ANTIOXIDANTS: These are additives which prevent oxidation of the lubricant, reduce residue formation on metal parts and extend the life of equipment and the oil.
OLEIC ACID: It is an organic acid added by 1% to mineral oil used as medium pressure EP additive.

P
RUST AND CORROSION: An abrasion caused on metal surfaces humid and acidic medium. While the surface is worn, color of the oil changes and rust contamination occurs. Oil’s anti-rusting and anti-corrosive characteristics are developed by additives.
ANTI-RUST ADDITIVE: Polar organic compounds added to mineral oil to prevent rusting caused by humidity and water.
PPD (POUR POINT DEPRESSANT): These are polymeric additives depressing flow point in order to reduce mineral oil’s flowing point and prevent solidification at low temperatures.
FLASH POINT DETERMINATION: The lowest temperature at which a combustible product (oil) exert vapor(vaporises) to form a combustible mixture with air. Combustion Point is the temperature at which the mixture of Flashing or Combustible liquid vapor with air burn harmlessly without being touched by flames. Flashing Point and Combustion Point are different concepts. Such values are important with regard to working safety.
PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION: This is the test method determining micron level particle distribution in oils.
pH: The measurement unit defining acidity or alkalinity of a solution. It is the acronym for “Power of Hydrogen”.

R

RESISTIVITY: Electrical resistance of a substance, i.e., specific resistance.
REACH: The EU Regulations which combine many legislations regarding chemicals in the EU. REACH is the acronym for (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals).
ROHS: The directive stipulating that (instructions restricting) certain substances must (that should) not exist in electronic cards or electronic supplies. It is the acronym for Restriction of Hazardous Substances.

S
SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers, is an organization designating engine and transmission oil viscosity classifications.
SYNTETIC OILS: Synthetic oils are non-petrol based lubricants obtained by means of chemical synthesis. In the chemical process, hydrocarbon molecules which will form the synthetic structure are designed to match each other with regard to size and shape. Synthetic oils have many superior features when compared to mineral based oils due to their diligently(kırmızılar kaldırılacak) organized structure.
WATER SEPARATION TEST: The test designating oil’s nature of separation from water. The quantity of oil separated from water is measured as water and emulsion.
SULFATED ASH: The residual ash obtained by resolving engine oil in sulfuric acid and burning it under laboratory conditions. It is expressed as the % of the burnt engine oil sample (ash%). It is a standard with regard(indicating) to quantity and quality of the additives contained by engine oil, its being at optimum level is important for valves and bearings.
FRICTION: The force opposite to direction of movement of an object either moving or wanted to be moved.

T
MONOGRADE OILS: Engine oils used in differing viscosity classes in summer and winter, which do not contain viscosity index improving additives.
TIMKEN OK VALUE: The Timken EP test equipment maximum load at which the oil film could resist without being torn.
TOTAL NUMBER OF ACIDS: The value representing acidic component quantity in the structure of an oil. Represented by the unit mgKOH/g.
TOTAL NUMBER OF BASES: Total number of bases represents the quantity of alkali substances in the mineral oil. It is denominated by mgKOH/g. It particularly describes the neutralizing capacity of acidic products yielding in engine oils while(during) burning.(combustion)
TOST OXIDATION TEST: A test determining oxidation strength, i.e., useful life of oils.

V
VISCOSITY INDEX: Determines the change of oil’s viscosity values with temperature. As Viscosity Index increases, viscosity drops less with the increasing temperature so that leaks and power loss in the hydraulic system is minimized.
VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVING ADDITIVES: Viscosity index improving additives are oil soluble organic polymers which reduce effect of thermal change on the index improving additives, in other words, they increase viscosity index.

Y
OIL SEPARATION: Separation of grease’s oil component at the time of stocking.
ADHESIVE: These are soap compounds which prevent dripping of oil from bearings or splashing of drips, they provide higher cohesion and fibrous structure to oils.
DENSITY: Mass per unit volume
LOAD BEARING CAPACITY: Resistance of an oil film against tearing under high pressure, high temperature or high speed.
SURFACE TENSION: Resistance of a liquid against extension or enlargement of its surface area.